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05/12/2013

Name Change of Beijing as the Capital of 6 Dynasties

King Wu first declared what is now Beijing affordable China tours the capital of China in 1057 B.C. The city has gone by the names of Ji, Zhongdu, Dadu, and finally Beijing when Ming Dynasty Emperor Cheng Zu selected the name in 1421. Before 1949, Beijing was known in the West as Peking.

Ji 蓟

During the Warring States Period (475221BC), the Marquis of Yan annexed the territory of the Marquis of Ji, making the city of Ji his new capital. The approximate location was north of Guang’ anmen Gate in presentday Beijing near the White Cloud Temple (Baiyunguan).

Yanjing 燕京

At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty(618-907), Ji was little different from any other large feudal cities. Several centuries later, however, when the Tang was nearing a state of collapse, the Qidans (Khitans) came from the upper reaches of the Liaohe River and moved south to occupy Ji and make it their second capital. They called the city Nanjing (Southern Capital) or Yanjing.Emperor Taizong of the Liao Dynasty (916-1125) carried out reconstruction projects and built palaces, which were used as strongholds from which the Qidans set out to conquer the central plains of China.

Zhongdu 中都

In the early 12th century, the Nuzhen (Jurchen) conquered the Liao and established the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234). In 1153, Wan Yanliang moved the Jin capital from Huiningfu in present day Liaoning Province popular China tour package to Yanjing and renamed it Zhongdu (Central Capital) as a challenge to the Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279), which had its capital at Lin’an (presentday Hangzhou).

Dadu 大都

Mongol armies occupied Zhongdu in 1215.Yanjing was given provincial status. It was not until 1271 that Kublai Khan formally adopted the new dynasty’s name — Yuan — and made Yanjing the capital. Kublai Khan rebuilt the city and gave it the Chinese (Han) name of Dadu (Ta-tu) or Great Capital, though in Mongol it was known as Khanbalig (Marco Polo’s Cambaluc), the City of the Great Khan. When the Mongols finally eliminated the Southern Song and unified China, Dadu became the political center of the country for the first time in history.

Beijing 北京

On August 2, 1368, Ming troops seized Dadu and renamed it Beiping (Northern Peace). Beginning in 1406, Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty spent 15 years constructing walls 12 meters high and 10 meters thick at their base around the city of Beiping. The construction of palace buildings and gardens began in 1417 and was completed in 1420. The following year, Emperor Yongle formally transferred the capital from Nanjing top China tours to Beiping and, for the first time, named the city Beijing (Northern Capital).

Beijing

When the Manchus founded the Qing Dynasty in 1644, they made beijing the capital of the dynasty and began to build suburban gardens, the most famous of which was Yuanmingyuan. Construction over the course of an entire century, the imposing columned palaces and open-air pavilions blended with the serenity of well planned gardens to create a masterpiece of garden architecture unrivaled in the history of China.

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04:42 Publié dans Voyage | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)

04/12/2013

Travel Etiquette in China

Whether you’re traveling to China for business or leisure, learning the rules of etiquette will facilitate interactions in this nation that honors tradition. Even gift-giving and handshakes follow an established protocol. Make a good impression on your host or business associate by demonstrating your willingness to learn the nuances of this Eastern culture affordable China tours.

Gift-Giving

The act of giving and receiving gifts is common in China, whether you're on a business or personal trip. It’s customary to bring a gift for the company representatives or family you’re visiting. Pens and liquor are standard gifts, as are edible arrangements. Consumable gifts are especially valued in cramped homes. Never offer a gift that consists of four items, as the number is related to death. Avoid blue or black colors for the same reason. Don’t be surprised if the recipient declines your gift at first; it’s a sign that he does not wish to appear greedy. Insist again until he accepts. It is also customary for your host to leave the gift unopened until you leave.

Shaking Hands

In China, shaking hands is acceptable when greeting others and is even expected when meeting for the first time best tours of China. Etiquette dictates that the younger or junior member be introduced to the senior, and men be introduced to women. Don’t use your left hand, and take off your sunglasses or hat before extending your hand. Never shake someone’s hand while you’re sitting down unless you’re in a wheelchair or incapacitated. Regardless of your position, if you’re in doubt and are traveling or working with someone who has a better understanding of etiquette in China, wait for a signal or an introduction to avoid seeming rude.

Taboo Topics

The general Western taboo regarding the discussion of religion and politics holds true in China as well. Avoid mentioning historical and modern disputes with Japan, Korea, Tibet and Taiwan, as well as the country’s inner struggles. This includes Mao’s Cultural Revolution of the 1970s and the later Tiananmen Square incident. If your host brings up a hot topic, carefully avoid speaking in an antagonistic manner. The one-child-per-family policy is also still in effect in China, with varying degrees of enforcement and protest, so avoid discussing the number of children your host may have popular China tours.

Dining Etiquette

If you attend a business dinner or banquet, don’t eat or drink anything before the host begins. The host normally sits at the very center of the table, rather than at the head. When using chopsticks, never point at anything or anyone with them. Don’t stick them in your food so that they’re standing up, as this is only done during funeral rites. Slurping noodles is a common occurrence, and others may take offense if you refrain from the practice. Drinking is a highlight of parties, both formal and informal, and a good host makes sure your cup is always full. Pace yourself to avoid embarrassment.

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07:47 Publié dans Voyage | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)

03/12/2013

White Emperor City - Chinese Ancient "Poem City"

Located in Chongqing, Eight miles downstream from Fenjie County, on the northern bank of the Yangtze River Yangtze River tour is White Emperor City (白帝城), also called Baidi Temple.

It is an ancient temple located atop Baidi Mountain directly overlooking the Qutang Gorge, one of the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. It is also the best place to overlook “Kui Gate” which is at the entrance to Qutang Gorge. Two perpendicular cliffs rear over the river surface on either side, looking like a pair of giant door leaves.

Chinese Ancient "Poem City"

White Emperor City is also known as the City of Poems because so many poets, including the Poet Immortal Libai who wrote about "Departing from Baidi in the Morning", and the Poet Sage Dufu who even resided here for nearly two years and wrote about 1,400 poems.

Departing from Baidi in the Morning

This morning, I depart the town of Baidi, engulfed by vibrant clouds.

I return to far away Jiangling within a single day!

From both banks, the steady sound of shrieking monkeys fills the air.

Our little boat has already carried me past thousands of hilltops.

History of White Emperor City

It is said that in the late Western Han Dynasty (206 BC - 24 AD), Gongsun Shu, a general, set up a separatist regime by force of arms in Sichuan. He claimed himself the King of Shu. Because he saw white fog rising from the well of the mountain which was like a white dragon, he called himself the White Emperor. And he made it the capital city and gave the city the name - White Emperor City.

Highlights of White Emperor City

At White Emperor City affordable China travel packages, in addition to visiting the numerous Ming Dynasty Era halls that house statues of the Three Kingdoms heroes, one can see an original Ba hanging coffin that is over 2300 years old in Stele Forest.



Tuogu Tang (托孤堂)

Tuogu Tang (Entrusting Son’s Hall) is the most attractive one. In the Three Kingdoms Period (220 - 280), the first emperor of the Shu Kingdom, Liu Bei, failed in the battle with the Wu Kingdom at White Emperor City. He became ill and entrusted his son to his prime minister, Zhuge Liang before closing his eyes. Now, the hall exhibits the statues which depict the scene of Liu Bei entrusting his son to Zhuge Liang.

Mingliang Palace (明良殿)

Mingliang Palace is where the statue of GongsunShu was once sacrificed by the people. In the Ming Dynasty China guide, the statue was replaced by those of Liu Bei, Guan Yu, Zhangfei and Zhuge Liang.

Observing Stars Pavilion (观星亭)

It is the place where Zhu Geliang observed the stars and developed the tactic of using arms.

Stele Forest (碑林)

Other relics housed in Baidi Temple are a Stele Forest, ancient suspended wooden coffins, painting and calligraphy works by celebrities of different dynasties.

Travel Note: When taking the Yangtze River cruise and reaching White Emperor City, you would take the coach directly to Baidi Temple in 20 minutes’ drive. You will have two hours for your White Emperor City visit to appreciate the rich historic story and mysterious land.

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08:33 Publié dans Voyage | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)